Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|3 Months Ended|
Mar. 31, 2023
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Note 4 Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
a) Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and the interim reporting rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto contained in Viking’s latest Annual Report filed with the SEC on Form 10-K. In the opinion of management, all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring adjustments (unless otherwise indicated), necessary for a fair presentation of the financial position and the results of operations for the interim periods presented have been reflected herein. The results of operations for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full year.
b) Basis of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements presented herein reflect the consolidated financial results of the Company, its wholly owned subsidiaries (Mid-Con Petroleum, LLC, Mid-Con Drilling, LLC, Mid-Con Development, LLC, and Petrodome Energy, LLC.), and Simson-Maxwell (a majority owned subsidiary).
In January 2022, the Company acquired a 51% ownership interest in Viking Ozone, and in February 2022, the Company acquired a 51% ownership interest in both Viking Sentinel and Viking Protection. These entities were formed to facilitate the monetization of acquired intellectual properties (see Note 7). These entities are variable interest entities in which the Company owns a controlling financial interest; consequently, these entities are also consolidated.
All significant intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated.
c) Foreign Currency
Foreign currency denominated assets and liabilities are translated into U.S. dollars using the exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date. Results of operations and cash flows of businesses conducted in foreign currency are translated using the average exchange rates throughout the period. The effect of exchange rate fluctuations on translation of assets and liabilities is included as a component of stockholders’ equity in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). Gains and losses from foreign currency transactions have been insignificant.
d) Use of Estimates in the Preparation of Financial Statements
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts and timing of revenues and expenses, the reported amounts and classification of assets and liabilities, and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Significant areas requiring the use of management estimates relate to impairment of long-lived assets, goodwill, fair value of commodity derivatives, stock-based compensation, asset retirement obligations, and the determination of expected tax rates for future income tax recoveries.
The estimates of proved, probable and possible oil and gas reserves are used as significant inputs in determining the depletion of oil and gas properties and the impairment of proved and unproved oil and gas properties. There are numerous uncertainties inherent in the estimation of quantities of proved, probable and possible reserves and in the projection of future rates of production and the timing of development expenditures. Similarly, evaluations for impairment of proved and unproved oil and gas properties are subject to numerous uncertainties including, among others, estimates of future recoverable reserves and commodity price outlooks. Actual results could differ from the estimates and assumptions utilized.
e) Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash in banks and highly liquid investment securities that have original maturities of three months or less. Accounts at banks in the United States are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) up to $250,000, while accounts at banks in Canada are insured by the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation (“CDIC”) up to CAD $100,000. The Company’s cash balances may at times exceed the FDIC or CDIC insured limits.
f) Accounts Receivable
Accounts receivable for the Company’s oil and gas operations consist of purchaser receivables and joint interest billing receivables. The Company evaluates these accounts receivable for collectability and, when necessary, records allowances for expected unrecoverable amounts. During the three months ended March 31, 2022, the Company determined that the collectability of certain accounts receivable balances associated with the disposals of Ichor, and Elysium were not collectable and a reserve of $1,800,000 was recorded. These amounts were written off during the year ended December 31, 2022. At March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the Company has not recorded an allowance for doubtful accounts related to oil and gas.
The Company extends credit to its power generation customers in the normal course of business. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations and generally does not require collateral. Payment terms are generally 30 days. The Company carries its trade accounts receivable at invoice amount less an allowance for doubtful accounts. On a periodic basis, the Company evaluates its accounts receivable and establishes an allowance for doubtful accounts based upon management’s estimates that include a review of the history of past write-offs and collections and an analysis of current credit conditions. At March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the Company had a reserve for doubtful accounts on power generation accounts receivable of $19,412. The Company does not accrue interest on past due accounts receivable.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value, and consist of parts, equipment and work in process. Work-in-process and finished goods included the cost of materials, direct labor and overhead. At the closing of each reporting period, the Company evaluates its inventory in order to adjust the inventory balance for obsolete and slow-moving items.
Inventory consisted of the following at March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022:
h) Prepaid Expenses
Prepaid expenses include amounts paid in advance for certain operational expenses, as well as amounts paid through the issuance of restricted shares of stock for future contractual benefits to be received. These advances are amortized over the life of the contract using the straight-line method.
i) Oil and Gas Properties
The Company uses the full cost method of accounting for its investment in oil and natural gas properties. Under this method of accounting, all costs associated with acquisition, exploration and development of oil and gas reserves, including directly related overhead costs, are capitalized. General and administrative costs related to production and general overhead are expensed as incurred.
All capitalized costs of oil and gas properties, including the estimated future costs to develop proved reserves, are amortized on the unit of production method using estimates of proved reserves. Disposition of oil and gas properties are accounted for as a reduction of capitalized costs, with no gain or loss recognized unless such adjustment would significantly alter the relationship between capitalized costs and proved reserves of oil and gas, in which case the gain or loss is recognized in operations. Unproved properties and major development projects are not amortized until proved reserves associated with the projects can be determined or until impairment occurs. If the results of an assessment indicate that the properties are impaired, the amount of the impairment is included in loss from operations before income taxes.
j) Limitation on Capitalized Costs
Under the full-cost method of accounting, we are required, at the end of each reporting date, to perform a test to determine the limit on the book value of our oil and natural gas properties (the “Ceiling” test). If the capitalized costs of our oil and natural gas properties, net of accumulated amortization and related deferred income taxes, exceed the Ceiling, this excess or impairment is charged to expense. The expense may not be reversed in future periods, even though higher oil and natural gas prices may subsequently increase the Ceiling. The Ceiling is defined as the sum of:
k) Oil and Gas Reserves
Reserve engineering is a subjective process that is dependent upon the quality of available data and the interpretation thereof, including evaluations and extrapolations of well flow rates and reservoir pressure. Estimates by different engineers often vary, sometimes significantly. In addition, physical factors such as the results of drilling, testing and production subsequent to the date of an estimate, as well as economic factors such as changes in product prices, may justify revision of such estimates. Because proved reserves are required to be estimated using recent prices of the evaluation, estimated reserve quantities can be significantly impacted by changes in product prices.
l) Accounting for Leases
The Company uses the right-of-use (“ROU”) model to account for leases where the Company is the lessee, which requires an entity to recognize a lease liability and ROU asset on the lease commencement date. A lease liability is measured equal to the present value of the remaining lease payments over the lease term and is discounted using the incremental borrowing rate, as the rate implicit in the Company’s leases is not readily determinable. The incremental borrowing rate is the rate of interest that the Company would have to pay to borrow, on a collateralized basis over a similar term, an amount equal to the lease payments in a similar economic environment. Lease payments include payments made before the commencement date and any residual value guarantees, if applicable. When determining the lease term, the Company includes option periods that it is reasonably certain to exercise as failure to renew the lease would impose a significant economic detriment.
For operating leases, minimum lease payments or receipts, including minimum scheduled rent increases, are recognized as rent expense where the Company is a lessee on a straight-line basis (“Straight-Line Rent”) over the applicable lease terms. The excess of the Straight-Line Rent over the minimum rents paid is included in the ROU asset where the Company is a lessee. Short-term lease cost for operating leases includes rental expense for leases with a term of less than 12 months.
The Company elected the package of practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance for the revised lease standard, which allowed Viking to carry forward the historical lease classification, retain the initial direct costs for any leases that existed prior to the adoption of the standard and not reassess whether any contracts entered into prior to the adoption are leases. The Company also elected to account for lease and non-lease components in lease agreements as a single lease component in determining lease assets and liabilities. In addition, the Company elected not to recognize the right-of-use assets and liabilities for leases with lease terms of one year or less.
m) Business Combinations
The Company allocates the fair value of purchase consideration to the tangible assets acquired, liabilities assumed, and intangible assets acquired based on their estimated fair values. The excess of the fair value of purchase consideration over the fair values of these identifiable assets and liabilities is recorded as goodwill. Such valuations require management to make significant estimates and assumptions, especially with respect to intangible assets. Significant estimates in valuing certain intangible assets include, but are not limited to, future expected cash flows from acquired customer lists, acquired technology, and trade names from a market participant perspective, useful lives and discount rates. Management’s estimates of fair value are based upon assumptions believed to be reasonable, but which are inherently uncertain and unpredictable and, as a result, actual results may differ from estimates. During the measurement period, which is one year from the acquisition date, the Company may record adjustments to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed, with the corresponding offset to goodwill. Upon the conclusion of the measurement period, any subsequent adjustments are recorded to earnings.
n) Intangible Assets
Intangible assets include amounts related to the Company’s license agreement with ESG Clean Energy, LLC, and its investments in Viking Ozone, LLC, Viking Protection Systems, LLC and Viking Sentinel, LLC. Additionally, as part of the acquisition of Simson-Maxwell, the Company identified intangible assets consisting of Simson-Maxwell’s customer relationships and its brand. These intangible assets are described in detail in Note 7.
The intangible assets related to the ESG Clean Energy license and the Simson-Maxwell customer relationships are being amortized on a straight-line basis over 16 years (the remaining life of the related patents) and 10 years, respectively. The other intangible assets are not amortized.
The Company reviews these intangible assets, at least annually, for possible impairment when events or changes in circumstances that the assets carrying amount may not be recoverable. In evaluating the future benefit of its intangible assets, the Company estimates the anticipated undiscounted future net cash flows of the intangible assets over the remaining estimated useful life. If the carrying amount is not recoverable, an impairment loss is recorded for the excess of the carrying value of the asset over its fair value.
o) Income (Loss) per Share
Basic net income (loss) per share is computed by dividing the net income (loss) by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income (loss) per share is computed by dividing the net income (loss) by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding and adjusted by any effects of warrants and options outstanding during the period, if dilutive. For the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, there were approximately 26,164,368 and 15,499,390 respectively, common stock equivalents that were omitted from the calculation of diluted income per share as they were anti-dilutive.
p) Revenue Recognition
Oil and Gas Revenues
Sales of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids (NGLs) are included in revenue when production is sold to a customer in fulfillment of performance obligations under the terms of agreed contracts. Performance obligations primarily comprise delivery of oil, gas, or NGLs at a delivery point, as negotiated within each contract. Each barrel of oil, million BTU (MMBtu) of natural gas, or other unit of measure is separately identifiable and represents a distinct performance obligation to which the transaction price is allocated. Performance obligations are satisfied at a point in time once control of the product has been transferred to the customer. The Company considers a variety of facts and circumstances in assessing the point of control transfer, including but not limited to: whether the purchaser can direct the use of the hydrocarbons, the transfer of significant risks and rewards, the Company’s right to payment, and transfer of legal title. In each case, the time between delivery and when payments are due is not significant.
The following table disaggregates the Company’s oil and gas revenue by source for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022:
Power Generation Revenues
Through its 60.5% ownership in Simson-Maxwell, the Company manufactures and sells power generation products, services and custom energy solutions. Simson-Maxwell provides commercial and industrial clients with emergency power generation capabilities. Simson Maxwell’s derives its revenues as follows:
At the request of certain customers, the Company will warehouse inventory billed to the customer but not delivered. Unless all revenue recognition criteria have been met, the Company does not recognize revenue on these transactions until the customer takes possession of the product.
The following table disaggregates Simson-Maxwell’s revenue by source for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022:
q) Income Taxes
The Company accounts for income taxes under the asset and liability method, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the consolidated financial statements. Under this method, the Company determines deferred tax assets and liabilities on the basis of the differences between the consolidated financial statements and the tax basis of assets and liabilities by using estimated tax rates for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse.
The Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities to the extent that we believe that these assets and/or liabilities are more likely than not to be realized. In making such a determination, we consider all available positive and negative evidence, including future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, projected future taxable income, tax planning strategies, and results of recent operations. If we determine that the Company would be able to realize our deferred tax assets in the future in excess of their net recorded amount, we would make an adjustment to the deferred tax asset valuation allowance, which would reduce the provision for income taxes.
In assessing the realizability of its deferred tax assets, management evaluated whether it is more likely than not that some portion, or all of its deferred tax assets, will be realized. The realization of its deferred tax assets relates directly to the Company’s ability to generate taxable income. The valuation allowance is then adjusted accordingly.
r) Stock-Based Compensation
The Company may issue stock options to employees and stock options or warrants to non-employees in non-capital raising transactions for services and for financing costs. The cost of stock options and warrants issued to employees and non-employees is measured on the grant date based on the fair value. The fair value is determined using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The resulting amount is charged to expense on the straight-line basis over the period in which the Company expects to receive the benefit, which is generally the vesting period.
The fair value of stock options and warrants is determined at the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The Black-Scholes option model requires management to make various estimates and assumptions, including expected term, expected volatility, risk-free rate, and dividend yield. The expected term represents the period of time that stock-based compensation awards granted are expected to be outstanding and is estimated based on considerations including the vesting period, contractual term and anticipated employee exercise patterns. Expected volatility is based on the historical volatility of the Company’s stock. The risk-free rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in relation to the contractual life of stock-based compensation instrument. The dividend yield assumption is based on historical patterns and future expectations for the Company dividends.
The following table represents stock warrant activity as of and for the three months ended March 31, 2023:
s) Impairment of Long-lived Assets
The Company, at least annually, is required to review its long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable through the estimated undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use and eventual disposition of the assets. Whenever any such impairment exists, an impairment loss will be recognized for the amount by which the carrying value exceeds the fair value.
Assets are grouped and evaluated at the lowest level for their identifiable cash flows that are largely independent of the cash flows of other groups of assets. The Company considers historical performance and future estimated results in its evaluation of potential impairment and then compares the carrying amount of the asset to the future estimated cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset. If the carrying amount of the asset exceeds estimated expected undiscounted future cash flows, the Company measures the amount of impairment by comparing the carrying amount of the asset to its fair value. The estimation of fair value is generally determined by using the asset’s expected future discounted cash flows or market value. The Company estimates fair value of the assets based on certain assumptions such as budgets, internal projections, and other available information as considered necessary. There is no impairment of long-lived assets during the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022.
t) Accounting for Asset Retirement Obligations
Asset retirement obligations (“ARO”) primarily represent the estimated present value of the amount the Company will incur to plug, abandon and remediate its producing properties at the projected end of their productive lives, in accordance with applicable federal, state and local laws. The Company determined its ARO by calculating the present value of estimated cash flows related to the obligation. The retirement obligation is recorded as a liability at its estimated present value as of the obligation’s inception, with an offsetting increase to proved properties.
The following table describes the changes in the Company’s asset retirement obligations for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022:
u) Derivative Liability
We review the terms of convertible debt issues to determine whether there are embedded derivative instruments, including embedded conversion options, which are required to be bifurcated and accounted for separately as derivative financial instruments. In circumstances where the host instrument contains more than one embedded derivative instrument, including the conversion option, that is required to be bifurcated, the bifurcated derivative instruments are accounted for as a single, compound derivative instrument.
Bifurcated embedded derivatives are initially recorded at fair value and are then revalued at each reporting date with changes in the fair value reported as non-operating income or expense. When the equity or convertible debt instruments contain embedded derivative instruments that are to be bifurcated and accounted for as liabilities, the total proceeds received are first allocated to the fair value of all the bifurcated derivative instruments. The remaining proceeds, if any, are then allocated to the host instruments themselves, usually resulting in those instruments being recorded at a discount from their face value. The discount from the face value of the convertible debt, together with the stated interest on the instrument, is amortized over the life of the instrument through periodic charges to interest expense.
The Company has adopted a sequencing approach to allocating its authorized and unissued shares when the number of such shares is insufficient to satisfy all convertible instruments or option type contracts that may be settled in shares. Specifically, the Company allocates it authorized and unissued shares based on the inception date of each instrument, with shares allocated first to those instruments with the earliest inception dates. Instruments with later inception dates for which no shares remain to be allocated are reclassified to asset or liability.
v) Undistributed Revenues and Royalties
The Company records a liability for cash collected from oil and gas sales that have not been distributed. The amounts are distributed in accordance with the working interests of the respective owners.
w) Concentration of Credit Risk
The Company maintains its cash in bank deposit accounts, which at times may exceed federally insured limits. The Company believes it is not exposed to any significant credit risk as a result of any non-performance by the financial institutions.
The Company uses procedures including credit approvals, credit limits and terms to manage its credit exposure. Additionally, the Company regularly issues progress billings on longer-term orders to mitigate both credit risk and overall working capital requirements.
x) Subsequent events
The Company has evaluated all subsequent events from March 31, 2023 through the date of filing of this report.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef