Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2016
|Notes to Financial Statements|
|Note 3. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
a) Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements of Viking Investments Group, Inc. (Viking or the Company) have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (GAAP) and the rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements and notes thereto contained in Vikings latest Annual Report filed with the SEC on Form 10-K/A. In the opinion of management, all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring adjustments (unless otherwise indicated), necessary for a fair presentation of the financial position and the results of operations for the interim periods presented have been reflected herein. The results of operations for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full year. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements.
b) Basis of Consolidation
The financial statements presented herein reflect the consolidated financial results of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiary, Viking Oil & Gas (Canada) ULC, a Canadian corporation formed on March 8, 2016. This subsidiary is intended to provide a base of operations in Canada, although at the time of this filing there has been no activity. All significant intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated upon consolidation.
c) Use of Estimates in the Preparation of Financial Statements
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts and timing of revenues and expenses, the reported amounts and classification of assets and liabilities, and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. The Company's actual results could vary materially from management's estimates and assumptions. Significant areas requiring the use of management estimates relate to the determination of expected tax rates for future income tax recoveries, stock-based compensation, embedded derivative assets and liabilities, asset retirement obligations and impairment of long-term investment.
The estimates of proved, probable and possible oil and gas reserves are used as significant inputs in determining the depletion of oil and gas properties and the impairment of proved and unproved oil and gas properties. There are numerous uncertainties inherent in the estimation of quantities of proved, probable and possible reserves and in the projection of future rates of production and the timing of development expenditures. Similarly, evaluations for impairment of proved and unproved oil and gas properties are subject to numerous uncertainties including, among others, estimates of future recoverable reserves and commodity price outlooks.
Actual results could differ from the estimates and assumptions utilized.
d) Financial Instruments
ASC Topic 820-10, Fair Value Measurement requires disclosure of the fair value of financial instruments held by the Company. ASC Topic 820-10, defines fair value, and establishes a three-level valuation hierarchy for disclosures of fair value measurement that enhances disclosure requirements for fair value measures. The carrying amounts reported in the consolidated balance sheets for other receivable related party, accrued expenses and other current liabilities, accounts payable, derivative liabilities, amount due to directors, and convertible notes each qualify as financial instruments and are a reasonable estimate of their fair values because of the short period of time between the origination of such instruments and their expected realization and their current market rate of interest. The three levels of valuation hierarchy are defined as follows:
Assets and liabilities measured at fair value as of September 30, 2016 are classified below based on the three fair value hierarchy described above:
Assets and liabilities measured at fair value as of December 31, 2015 are classified below based on the three fair value hierarchy described above:
The Companys long term investment consists of 3,437,500 common shares of Tanager Energy, Inc., which is traded on the TSX Venture Exchange (Toronto Stock Exchange). The change in the fair value of this investment recognized as an unrealized gain in other comprehensive income on the statement of operations and comprehensive loss was $148,663 for the nine months ended September 30, 2016 and $19,028 for the year ended December 31, 2015.
The Company uses the Black-Scholes model to value its derivative liabilities. This model takes into account inputs such as contract terms, including maturity and market parameters, including assumptions associated with interest rates, volatility and credit worthiness. The derivative liabilities of the Company were $547,894 and $810,647 as of September 30, 2016 and December 31, 2015 respectively. The change in the fair value of the derivative liabilities for the nine months ended September 30, 2016 consisted of an increase of $1,216,303 associated with warrants and the conversion features of new convertible debt, a reduction of $645,638 associated with the satisfaction of certain convertible debt and a gain recognized in the statement of operations and comprehensive loss in the amount of $833,418.
e) Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash in banks and highly liquid investment securities that have original maturities of three months or less. At September 30, 2016 and December 31, 2015, the Company does not have any cash deposits in excess of FDIC insured limits.
f) Accounts receivable
Accounts receivable consist of oil and gas receivables. The Company has classified these as short-term assets in the balance sheet because the Company expects repayment or recovery within the next 12 months. The Company evaluates these accounts receivable for collectability and, when necessary, records allowances for expected unrecoverable amounts. The Company deems all accounts receivable to be collectable, and has not recorded any allowance for doubtful accounts.
g) Prepaid equity based compensation
Prepaid equity-based expenses represent amounts paid in advance through the issuance of restricted shares of stock, for future contractual benefits to be received. These expenses paid in advance are recorded as prepaid equity-based compensation as a component of Stockholders Deficit and then amortized to the statements of operations and comprehensive loss over the life of the contract using the straight-line method. At September 30, 2016 and December 31, 2015, the balances of the prepaid equity-based compensation were comprised of the following:
h) Oil and Gas Properties
The Company uses the full cost method of accounting for its investment in oil and natural gas properties. Under this method of accounting, all costs associated with acquisition, exploration and development of oil and gas reserves, including directly related overhead costs, are capitalized. General and administrative costs related to production and general overhead are expensed as incurred.
All capitalized costs of oil and gas properties, including the estimated future costs to develop proved reserves, are amortized on the unit of production method using estimates of proved reserves. Disposition of oil and gas properties are accounted for as a reduction of capitalized costs, with no gain or loss recognized unless such adjustment would significantly alter the relationship between capitalized costs and proved reserves of oil and gas, in which case the gain or loss is recognized in operations. Unproved properties and major development projects are not amortized until proved reserves associated with the projects can be determined or until impairment occurs. If the results of an assessment indicate that the properties are impaired, the amount of the impairment is included in loss from continuing operations before income taxes and the adjusted carrying amount of the unproved properties is amortized on the unit-of-production method.
Depreciation, depletion and amortization expense utilizing the unit-of-production method for the Companys oil and gas properties for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2016 and 2015 were as follows:
i) Limitation on Capitalized Costs
Under the full-cost method of accounting, we are required, at the end of each reporting date, to perform a test to determine the limit on the book value of our oil and natural gas properties (the Ceiling test). If the capitalized costs of our oil and natural gas properties, net of accumulated amortization and related deferred income taxes, exceed the Ceiling, this excess or impairment is charged to expense. The expense may not be reversed in future periods, even though higher oil and natural gas prices may subsequently increase the Ceiling. The Ceiling is defined as the sum of:
j) Oil and Gas Reserves
Reserve engineering is a subjective process that is dependent upon the quality of available data and the interpretation thereof, including evaluations and extrapolations of well flow rates and reservoir pressure. Estimates by different engineers often vary sometimes significantly. In addition, physical factors such as the results of drilling, testing and production subsequent to the date of an estimate, as well as economic factors such as changes in product prices, may justify revision of such estimates. Because proved reserves are required to be estimated using recent prices of the evaluation, estimated reserve quantities can be significantly impacted by changes in product prices.
k) Earnings (Loss) per Share
Basic net earnings (loss) per share is computed by dividing the net earnings (loss) by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net earnings (loss) per share is computed by dividing the net earnings (loss) by the weighted-average number of common shares and, adjusted by any effects of convertible debt and warrants and options outstanding, if dilutive, that may add to the number of common shares during the period. At September 30, 2016 and 2015 there were approximately 12,229,167 and 0 common stock equivalents respectively, that were anti-dilutive and were not included in the calculation for the nine month periods ended September 30, 2016 and 2015. For the three month periods ended September 30, 2016 and 2015 there were 8,166,667 and 0 common stock equivalents that were dilutive.
l) Revenue Recognition
All revenue is recognized when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, the service or sale is complete, the price is fixed or determinable and collectability is reasonably assured. Revenue is derived from the sale of crude oil and natural gas. Revenue from crude oil and natural gas sales is recognized when the product is delivered to the purchaser and collectability is reasonably assured. The Company follows the sales method of accounting for oil and natural gas revenue, so it recognizes revenue on all natural gas or crude oil sold to purchasers.
m) Comprehensive Loss
FASB ASC 220 Comprehensive Income, establishes standards for the reporting and presentation of comprehensive income and its components in the consolidated financial statements. For the nine months ended September 30, 2016 and 2015, comprehensive income (loss) was $148,663 and $(16,642) respectively, and consisted primarily of unrealized gains and (losses) on available for sale securities.
n) Income Taxes
The Company accounts for income taxes under FASB Codification Topic 740-10-25 (ASC 740-10-25). Under ASC 740-10-25, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. Under ASC 740-10-25, the effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. The Company provides a valuation allowance for deferred tax assets for which it does not consider realization of such assets likely. The Company did not incur any material impact to its financial condition or results of operations due to the financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. The Company is subject to U.S federal jurisdiction income tax examinations for the tax years 2007 through 2015. In addition, the Company is subject to state and local income tax examinations for the tax years 2007 through 2015.
o) Stock-Based Compensation
The Company may issue stock options to employees and stock options or warrants to non-employees in non-capital raising transactions for services and for financing costs. In accordance with guidance in ASC Topic 718, the cost of stock options and warrants issued to employees and non-employees is measured on the grant date based on the fair value. The fair value is determined using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The resulting amount is charged to expense on the straight-line basis over the period in which the Company expects to receive the benefit, which is generally the vesting period.
The fair value of stock warrants was determined at the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The Black-Scholes option model requires management to make various estimates and assumptions, including expected term, expected volatility, risk-free rate, and dividend yield. The expected term represents the period of time that stock-based compensation awards granted are expected to be outstanding and is estimated based on considerations including the vesting period, contractual term and anticipated employee exercise patterns. Expected volatility is based on the historical volatility of the Companys stock. The risk-free rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in relation to the contractual life of stock-based compensation instrument. The dividend yield assumption is based on historical patterns and future expectations for the Company dividends.
The following table represents stock warrant activity as of and for the nine months ended September 30, 2016:
The Company used the Black-Scholes model to value these warrants at $416,315, and included this amount as a debt discount and a corresponding component of derivative liabilities.
p) Long-term Investment
Management determines the appropriate classification of investment securities at the time of purchase. Securities are classified held-to-maturity when the Company has both the positive intent and ability to hold the securities to maturity. Held-to-maturity securities are stated at amortized cost. Securities that are bought and held principally for the purpose of selling in the near term are classified as trading securities and reported at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses included in earnings. Securities not classified as held-to-maturity or trading are classified as available-for-sale. Available-for-sale securities are stated at fair value, the changes in the market value of available-for-sale securities, excluding other-than-temporary impairments, are reflected in Other Comprehensive Income, with the impairment losses, net of income taxes, charged to net income in the period in which it occurs.
The fair value of securities is based on quoted market prices. If a quoted market price is not available, fair value is estimated using quoted market prices for similar securities. A decline in the market value of any available-for-sale or held-for-maturity security below cost that is deemed to be other-then-temporary results in a reduction in carrying amount to fair value.
Impairments that are considered other-than-temporary are recognized as a loss in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. The Company considers various factors in reviewing impairments, including the length of time and extent to which fair value has been less than the Companys cost basis, the financial condition and near-term prospects of the issuer, and the Companys intent and ability to hold the investments for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in market value.
As of September 30, 2016 and December 31, 2015, the Company had no trading and held-to-maturity securities.
The Companys long term investment consists of 3,437,500 common shares of Tanager Energy, Inc., which is traded on the TSX Venture Exchange (Toronto Stock Exchange), and is considered as available-for-sale securities. The change in the fair value of this investment recognized as an unrealized gain (loss) in other comprehensive income on the statement of operations and comprehensive loss was $148,663 and ($16,642) for the nine months ended September 30, 2016 and 2015 respectively.
q) Impairment of long-lived assets
In accordance with ASC 360, "Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets", the Company is required to review its long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable through the estimated undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use and eventual disposition of the assets. Whenever any such impairment exists, an impairment loss will be recognized for the amount by which the carrying value exceeds the fair value.
Assets are grouped and evaluated at the lowest level for their identifiable cash flows that are largely independent of the cash flows of other groups of assets. The Company considers historical performance and future estimated results in its evaluation of potential impairment and then compares the carrying amount of the asset to the future estimated cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset. If the carrying amount of the asset exceeds estimated expected undiscounted future cash flows, the Company measures the amount of impairment by comparing the carrying amount of the asset to its fair value. The estimation of fair value is generally determined by using the asset's expected future discounted cash flows or market value. The Company estimates fair value of the assets based on certain assumptions such as budgets, internal projections, and other available information as considered necessary. There is no impairment of long-lived assets during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2016 and 2015.
r) Foreign Currency Exchange
An entity's functional currency is the currency of the primary economic environment in which it operates, normally that is the currency of the environment in which the entity primarily generates and expends cash. Management's judgment is essential to determine the functional currency by assessing various indicators, such as cash flows, sales price and market, expenses, financing and inter-company transactions and arrangements. The functional currency of the parent company is the U.S. Dollar. The reporting currency of the Company is the U.S. Dollar. The Company has oil and gas operations in Alberta, Canada in which the Canadian Dollar (CAD or CS herein) is the primary economic environment. The reporting currency of these consolidated financial statements is the U.S. Dollar.
For financial reporting purposes, the operational results of the Company's oil and gas operations in Canada are prepared using the CAD, and are translated into the Company's reporting currency, the U.S. Dollar. Revenue and expenses applicable to the oil and gas operations in Alberta, Canada are translated using average rates prevailing during each reporting period. Gains or losses resulting from the settlement of foreign currency transactions are recorded as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income in stockholders' equity when realized. There have been no settlement transactions that resulted in the recognition of a foreign currency exchange gain or loss during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2016 and 2015.
s) Convertible Notes Payable
The Company accounts for conversion options embedded in convertible notes in accordance with ASC 815. ASC 815 generally requires companies to bifurcate conversion options embedded in convertible notes from their host instruments and to account for them as free standing derivative financial instruments.
The Company has evaluated the terms and conditions of its convertible notes under the guidance of ASC 815. The conversion feature did not meet the definition of indexed to a companys own stock provided for in ASC 815 due to the down round protection feature. Therefore, the conversion feature requires bifurcation and liability classification. Additionally, the default put requires bifurcation because it is indexed to risks that are not associated with credit or interest risk. As a result, the compound embedded derivative comprises of (i) the embedded conversion feature and (i) the default put. Rather than bifurcating and recording the compound embedded derivative as a derivative liability, the Company elected to initially and subsequently measure the convertible note in its entirety at fair value, with changes in fair value recognized in earnings in accordance with ASC 815-15-25-4.
t) Derivative Liability
We review the terms of convertible debt issues to determine whether there are embedded derivative instruments, including embedded conversion options, which are required to be bifurcated and accounted for separately as derivative financial instruments. In circumstances where the host instrument contains more than one embedded derivative instrument, including the conversion option, that is required to be bifurcated, the bifurcated derivative instruments are accounted for as a single, compound derivative instrument
Bifurcated embedded derivatives are initially recorded at fair value and are then revalued at each reporting date with changes in the fair value reported as non-operating income or expense. When the equity or convertible debt instruments contain embedded derivative instruments that are to be bifurcated and accounted for as liabilities, the total proceeds received are first allocated to the fair value of all the bifurcated derivative instruments. The remaining proceeds, if any, are then allocated to the host instruments themselves, usually resulting in those instruments being recorded at a discount from their face value. The discount from the face value of the convertible debt, together with the stated interest on the instrument, is amortized over the life of the instrument through periodic charges to interest expense.
u) Accounting for Asset Retirement Obligations
Asset retirement obligations (ARO) primarily represent the estimated present value of the amount the Company will incur to plug, abandon and remediate its producing properties at the projected end of their productive lives, in accordance with applicable federal, state and local laws. The Company determined its ARO by calculating the present value of estimated cash flows related to the obligation. The retirement obligation is recorded as a liability at its estimated present value as of the obligations inception, with an offsetting increase to proved properties.
Pursuant to the terms of the operating agreement associated with the oil and gas property acquisitions in the United States made during the quarter ended March 31, 2016, the Company has not incurred any additional Asset Retirement Obligations as a result of this acquisition. The operating agreement stipulates that this obligation has been assumed by the lease operator.
The following table describes the changes in the Companys asset retirement obligations for the nine months ended September 30, 2016:
v) Recent Accounting Pronouncements
The Financial Accounting Standards Board and other entities issued new or modifications to, or interpretations of, existing accounting guidance during 2016. Management has carefully considered the new pronouncements that altered generally accepted accounting principles and does not believe that any other new or modified principles will have a material impact on the Companys reported financial position or operations in the near term.
w) Subsequent events
The Company has evaluated all transactions through the date the consolidated financial statements were available to be issued for subsequent event disclosure consideration (Note 9).
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef